The good news first: The people in Germany smoke and drink less. The epidemiological survey of substance abuse 2018, the “Deutsche Ärzteblatt” on 2. Released in September, and before the MIRROR. Thus, tobacco consumption has declined since 1995 by an average of ten percent, while the consumption of alcohol around the turn of the century, although increased, but then also declined.
An international model, Germany is still a long time, also, the study shows. Because in comparison to countries such as Sweden, Belgium, the UK or the Netherlands, puff the Germans with 14.4 million smokers still in the majority. The same applies to alcohol: on average, each German per year, drinking nearly eleven litres of pure alcohol. The Federal Republic therefore continues to be one of the high-consumption countries.
In addition to the Smoking and drinking behaviour, the researchers also examined the intake of medicines like painkillers and illegal drugs. For their survey, they interviewed more than 9000 randomly selected people aged 18 to 64 years of age to behavior, their consumption and addiction. In addition, the researchers of Ludwig Kraus Institute for therapy research in Munich nine analyzed searches of the reports published since 1995. The results in Detail:
Smoking is a men problem
15 percent of the respondents reported to have in the 30 days prior to the survey, at least one cigarette a day is smoked. Extrapolated to the approximately 7.8 million regular smokers, matches. Most of them are men, so the result.
However, tobacco consumption has declined in the past 20 years. The researchers attribute this to measures such as higher tobacco tax, and the non-smoker protection act of 2007.
Whether Alternatives like E-cigarettes make a contribution, it is not clear from the study. The use of electrical inhalation device increases. Four percent of the respondents declared to have, in the past month E-cigarette use.
Mass Drug Alcohol
Alcohol remains the drug most frequently used in Germany. More than two-thirds of the respondents reported to have in the last 30 days drunk. To all 18 – to 64-Year-old transferred the equivalent of about 37 million out of 50 million people. 34.5 percent of the alcohol drinkers had consumed at least a five or more glasses in one day, from this amount, the researchers of the noise-talk to drink.
Despite the high Numbers, the decrease in alcohol consumption in Germany since about 18 years. The study authors estimate that people drink is not only rarer, but also smaller quantities. A positive development is observed especially in the case of the young people: they drink less now than in the past. Because of the young age can shape the drinking behavior, predict the researchers, a continued downward Trend.
Nevertheless, the damage caused by alcohol in Germany is still considerable: alcohol plays in 45 percent of all road traffic fatal accident a third party, such as Walking, a role. Experts estimate the number of newborn babies with mental or physical damage caused by alcohol consumption of mothers for 12,650 per year.
The economic costs of alcohol amount to just under 27 billion euros per year, the revenue through the alcohol to cover expensive of which just twelve percent.
Addiction survey in 2018: Less alcoholic, more potheads
Cannabis is becoming more and more popular
While the Numbers are on the decline in alcohol and tobacco, the study shows that more and more people in Germany to try illegal drugs. Seven percent of respondents reported in the past year Cannabis consumed, the tendency is rising. Also among adolescents and young adults between 12 and 25 years of cannabis consumption increases, therefore, clear.
As with most drugs, the proportion of men among the users of Cannabis is significantly greater, however, the number of Users increases to be stronger. In addition, the study shows that women are, increasingly, other illegal drugs such as LSD or Ecstasy. Among all respondents, 0.6% amphetamines, and 0.4 percent opioids had consumed in the previous year, 1.1 percent cocaine.
The researchers qualify the results as people with intense drug use in studies such as this hardly. The actual number of users was presumably higher. In the case of the surveyed persons were mostly “socially integrated opportunity for consumers”, – stated in the study.
The pain medication consumption is on the rise
While the consumption of sleeping pills and tranquilizers goes back, increasing the intake of analgesics in Germany. More than 30 percent of the respondents had taken within the past 30 days pain relievers that were not prescribed by a doctor. However, bought only 0.4% of the medium daily.
Also non-prescription pain relievers can be critical if someone swallows the tablets to more than 15 days per month. Then, there is the risk that a so-called drug-induced head developed pain, the consumption still increased.
17.5 per cent of the respondents had received in the past 30 days pain relievers prescribed by a doctor, of them, 7.2 percent took the drugs daily.
From consumption to addiction
Almost 14 percent of the respondents were of at least of a substance depends on the force the 7 million of 50 million 18 corresponds to Year to 64. Men were more frequently affected than women, a lot of the dependency goes back to tobacco. Second for the pain to come, however, before the alcohol. However, the scientists also documented in this point of positive change: The number of alcohol addicts has declined since 2012; the number of nicotine addicts is falling since 2006.
The rates of the experts
Despite the positive developments, the study’s authors are calling to strengthen the tobacco policy. That Germany is one of the riders in the consumption of alcohol in the international comparison still to the top, the result of the experts on inconsistently enforced measures that restrict the availability of alcohol.
Furthermore, the experts call for increased education of consumers, in particular with the prescription of painkillers. It is also important to train medical personnel in this field schools and Fort.